Diabetes mellitus refers to a group of diseases that affect the way of your body uses blood sugar (glucose). Glucose is vital to your health because it is an important energy source for the cells that make up muscles and tissues. It is also the main source of fuel your brain.
The underlying cause of diabetes varies based on the type. No matter any type of diabetes you had, it can lead to excess sugar in your blood. Too much sugar in your blood can cause serious health problems. Chronic diabetic conditions including diabetes type 1 and diabetes type 2. Reversible conditions such as prediabetes is potentially become diabetes. This condition is when blood sugar levels are higher than normal but is not high enough to be classified as diabetes. The gestational diabetes which occurs during pregnancy also potentially become diabetes, but may recover after the baby is born.
The risk factors for diabetes depends on the type of diabetes.
- The risk factors for diabetes type 1
Although the exact cause of diabetes type 1 is unknown, factors that may indicate an increased risk include:
- Family history
Your risk increases if a parent or sibling with diabetes type 1.
environmental factor. Circumstances such as exposure to viral diseases may play some role in diabetes type 1.
- The presence of immune system cells are damaged (auto antibodies)
Sometimes family members with diabetes type 1 tested the presence of auto antibodies. If you have these auto antibodies, you have an increased risk of developing diabetes type 1. However, not every body have these auto antibodies had diabetes.
Certain countries, such as Finland and Sweden, have high levels risk of diabetes type 1.
- The risk factors for prediabetes and diabetes type 2
Researchers do not fully understand why some people develop prediabetes and diabetes type 2, but others do not. This could be happened cause of the factor below that increase the risk, including:
The more fatty tissue you have, the more your cells become resistant to insulin.
The less active you are, the greater your risk. Physical activity helps you control your weight, uses glucose as energy and makes your cells more sensitive to insulin.
- Family history
Your risk increases if a parent or sibling has diabetes type 2.
For unclear reason, people of certain races — including blacks, Hispanics, American Indians and Asian-Americans — are at higher risk.
Your risk increases with age. This may be because you tend to exercise less, lose muscle mass and gain weight as we age. But diabetes type 2 is also increasing among children, adolescents and young adults.
- Gestational diabetes
If you have gestational diabetes during pregnancy, the risk of diabetes prediabetes and diabetes type 2 will increase. If you give birth to a baby weighing more than 9 pounds (4 kilograms), you are also at risk of developing diabetes type 2.
- Polycystic ovary syndrome
For women, having polycystic ovary syndrome — a common condition characterized by irregular menstrual periods, excess hair growth and obesity — increases the risk of diabetes.
- High blood pressure
Having a blood pressure greater than 140/90 millimeters of mercury (mm Hg) associated with an increased risk of diabetes type 2.
- Cholesterol and triglycerides are not normal
If you have high levels of low-density lipoprotein (HDL) is low, or “good” cholesterol, diabetes type 2 risk are higher. Triglycerides are another type of fat carried in the blood. People with high triglyceride levels had an increased risk of diabetes type 2 Your doctor can tell you your cholesterol and triglyceride levels.